輪島塗?

BRAND

輪島塗 WAJIMA-NURI

輪島塗は、数百年以上の歴史を持ち、丈夫で美しい高級実用漆器として日本全国の人々に愛用されてきました。輪島塗の丈夫さは、高価な漆や作業の手間を惜しまず100以上にもおよぶ工程の中で丁寧な漆塗を積み重ねることより生まれます。また、沈金や蒔絵による華麗な模様付けは、輪島塗を実用ばかりでなく芸術品へと高めてきました。 輪島塗は、木地師、下地塗師、中塗師、研師、上塗師、蒔絵師、沈金師、呂色師など多くの職人のわざが集まって作られます。今日まで多くの困難をのりこえて、輪島塗のわざを伝え育ててきたのは、輪島の人々の「良い漆器を作りたい」との心なのです。

Wajima Lacquer Ware, with its hundreds years of history, has been adored by the Japanese people as the most luxurious, elegant and durable lacquer ware for practical use. Its durability is achieved through more than 100 production processes, with the painstaking devotion of the craftsmen repeating elaborate coatings of the highest-quality of urushi. The rich surface decoration such as Makie and Chinkin has perfected the practical lacquer ware to the realm of atr. A piece of Wajima Lacquer Ware is produced through the many hands of these skillful artisans : the Kijishi (basemakers), the Shitajinurishi (primers), the Nakanurishi (middle coaters), the Togishi (polishers), the Uwanurishi (final coaters), the Makieshi (Makie artisans), the Chinkinshi (Chinkin artisans), and the Roiroshi (Roiro artisans). Through all the difficult phases in the past, the great skill and techniques have been inherited until today by the spirit of the people in Wajima.

歴史 HISTORY

漆器は日本を代表する工芸品の一つとして、長い歴史を持っています。近年の考古学調査では、漆の利用は約9,000年前にまで遡ることが明らかになっています。輪島塗の起源については諸説ありますが、いずれも確証がなく、定かではありません。輪島塗の特徴である「輪島地の粉」を用いた塗りの形跡が、輪島周辺に点在する中世の遺跡から出土した漆器に見られることや、伝世する数少ない記録から、室町時代には輪島周辺で漆器産地が形成されていたと考えられるようになりました。中世の輪島は「親の湊」と呼ばれ、日本海を代表する港湾の一つであり、広域的な市場を形成していました。このような条件を大きな要素として、「椀講」や「頼母子講」と呼ばれる独特の販売方法を普及させつつ販路を拡大し、輪島塗の名は全国的に知られるようになりました。また、江戸時代中期から後期にかけて沈金や蒔絵が導入され、塗り・加飾ともに大きく発展しました。輪島塗の工程は全て分業制であり、大きくは木地、塗り、加飾に分けられます。さらにその中で椀木地、曲物木地、指物木地、朴木地、下地、上塗、呂色、蒔絵、沈金に細分されています。緻密な職能文化によって、専門技術の熟達と生産効率の追求が図られ、高水準の技術や伝統が守られているのです。

Lacquer ware has a long history as one of the craft goods that represent Japan. In the archeology investigation in recent years, it is clarified that the use of the lacquer goes back about 9,000 years even ago. Both parties do not establish, and it is not certain though there are various opinions about the origin of the Wajima lacquer. The lacquer ware home came to be thought to have been formed from seeing signs of the paint of "Powder of the Wajima ground" that was the feature of the Wajima lacquer used around Wajima in the excavated lacquer ware from scattered ruins of the Middle Ages, and ..information world.. ..becoming empty.. records that were not a small numbers of [ru] around Muromachi Period of Wajima. It was called, "Parents' [**]", and Wajima of the Middle Ages was one of the harbors where the Sea of Japan was represented, and formed a large area market. Such a condition was assumed to be a big element, and it widened sales spreading a peculiar sales system where it lectured and the bowl was called" and "Mutual aid financing association", and the name of the Wajima lacquer came ..".. to be known on a nationwide scale. Moreover, [shizukane] and the lacqering at latter term from the middle of Edo period are introduced, and paint and Canada ..decoration.. [tomoni] have developed greatly. The processes of the Wajima lacquer are division of labor all systems, and it paints ..greatly.. ..wood.., and Canada ..decoration.. [ni] is divided. In addition, it is subdivided to [wankichi], [kyokumonokichi], joinery wood, [bokukichi], the groundwork, the above painting, and [**iro], the lacqering, and [shizukane] in that. The skill of the professional skill and the pursuit of the productive efficiency are aimed at by an exact function culture, and the technology and the tradition of the high level are defended.

塗り Lacquering

輪島塗の特徴は塗りにあります。それは本堅地と呼ばれる漆器の伝統的な下地技法です。輪島はこの技法にこだわり続け、 研究を重ね、質の向上を図り、輪島塗の伝統として定着させたのです。木地の破損しやすい部分に布を漆で貼り付ける布着せを行い、下地漆には輪島地の粉と呼ばれる 良質な地元生産珪藻土を焼成粉末化したものを混ぜます。珪藻土は断熱性に優れ、漆と結び付くことで非常に堅く丈夫な塗膜を形成します。地の粉の粒子が粗いものから細かなものへと、一辺地、二辺地、三辺地の順で重ね、その度ごとに研ぎを繰り返し、 きめ細かな肌合いへと変化させていきます。下地作業はたんに堅牢性のみを目的とした塗り重ねではありません。下地作業は地付けとも言い、素地の性質を見極め、 器全体の造形も考慮した地の厚みや、それに伴う研ぎが求められます。品格のある器に仕上げるため、ごまかしの利かない重要な工程です。 それを正確かつ効率的に行うことが、熟練した下地職人の匠の技といえるでしょう。上塗では、上質の精製漆を刷毛塗りします。チリを極端に嫌い、細心の注意を払いながら作業が行われます。また、一つ一つ性質の異なる様々な漆を使い分け、その時の季節や気候状況に合わせ、いつでも最適な塗膜が得られるよう漆を調合することが、技術と経験に裏付けされた上塗職人の実力です。

Wajima-nuri has a characteristic lacquering method. It is known as hon-kiji and is a traditional technique of undercoating. Wajima has remained steadfast in keeping to this method and through continuing research has strived to achieve the highest quality possible in urushiware. It has become the standard in Wajima lacquering.The parts of a wooden substrate that are most prone to damage are reinforced with cloth that is applied to the wood with urushi. Subsequent urushi undercoats are mixed with Wajima jinoko which literally means earth powder. Jinoko is high quality baked diatomaceous earth (a light soft chalk-like sedimentary rock that contains fossilized algae that give it an absorbent quality). Jinoko is extremely heat resistant and when mixed with urushi dries to form a hard and durable coating. Jinoko in Wajima is graded according to the size of the particles and is applied to the substrate mixed with urushi from the rough ippenji (first grade) followed by ippenji Between each stage the surface is sanded when dry and with each layer the finish becomes both finer and smoother.The repeated undercoating process however is not just for the purpose of ensuring durability. The undercoating process is also known as jitsuke and through careful manipulation of the thickness of coats and the sanding process between these coats the craftsman also determines the final shape and character of the substrate. It is an extremely important stage of the production process as there is no room for error as any oversight will be visible in the finished product. In order to produce such high quality work, a considerable level of technique is required from the craftsmen to consistently produce at such a demanding level.In uwa-nuri high quality refined urushi is applied to the substrate with a brush. Dust is the greatest enemy at this stage which requires great care and concentration.There are several varieties of urushi which are each used according to their individual properties. The season and climate contribute to the condition of the urushi when it is used and so it has to be carefully prepared. The experience and techniques of the uwa-nuri craftsman provide him with the ability to carefully mix and adjust the urushi so that each time it is used an optimum coating is achieved.


漆 夢工房 清里

〒928-0001 石川県輪島市河井町6-35-37
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電話 0768-22-5827

KIYO-SATO URUSI DREAM WORKS

6-35-37 kawai-machi wajima Ishikawa 928-0001 Japan
TEL 011-81-768-22-5827
urushi.kiyosato@gmail.com

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漆 夢工房 清里